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APA Style Guide

“References” Examples

Be sure to alphabetize your “References” page by author’s last name or the first word of the title if the author’s name is not available.


Book With One Author

Beck, C. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects.

        Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Book With Two Authors

Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and

        future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Book With More Than Six Authors

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., 

        et. al. (2000). Psychology: A study of science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Book with Corporate Author

Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for

and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.). New York:

Book With an Editor

Gibbs, J. T. (Ed.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with 

        minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Book With an Editor in Addition to an Author

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & 

        F. L. Emory, Eds.). New York: Dover.

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Encyclopedia Article or Dictionary

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica

        (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Journal Article

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. 

        Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.

Magazine Article

Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking

        down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290,

Newsletter Article

Brown, L. S. (1993, Spring). Antidomination training as a central component of
        diversity in clinical psychology education. The Clinical Psychologist, 46


Daily Newspaper Article, No Author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 

        15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

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Electronic Sources

Web Site

National Institutes of Mental Health. (2009). Depression. Retrieved from

Online Article - DOI Available**

Clemmensen, K. E., & Michelsen, A. (2006, May 12). Integrated long-term 

        responses of an artic-alpine willow. Canadian Journal of Botany, 84,

        831-43. doi:10.1139/B06-039.

**APA style requires that a DOI number be included for all electronic sources, if possible. You can find an article’s DOI on the first page of the article or at

Online Article - No DOI Available

Gremillion, K. J. (1996). Early agricultural diet in Eastern North America: 

        Evidence from two Kentucky rockshelters. American Antiquity, 61(3),
        520. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database.

Wildstrom, S. H. (1999, April 5). A big boost for net privacy. Business

, p. 23-25. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

Liswood, L. A. (1999, March 31). Gender politics and the Oval Office. Baltimore 

, p. 23A. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

Takano, T. & Nedergaard, M. (2009, January). Deciphering migraine. Journal of 
        Clinical Investigation, 119(1), 16-20. Retrieved from Health

        and Wellness Resource Center database.

Electronic Books

Zeinart, K. (1998). Those courageous women of the Civil War. Brookfield, CN: 

        Millbrook Press. Available from

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For other examples...

See the book Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by the American Psychological Association (from which this guide is excerpted). A copy is available in the Reference area, call number REF PE1478.P83 2010.

You may also look to these web sites for further citing examples:

Writing APA Parenthetical Text Citations

In the APA documentation style, parenthetical citations within the text refer the reader to a list of sources (references) at the end of the text.

Author not named in your text

One critic of Milgram’s experiments said that the subjects “should have been fully informed of the possible effects on them” (Baumrind, 1968, p. 34).

Author named in your text

Baumrind (1968) said that the subjects in Milgram’s study “should have been fully informed of the possible effects on them” (p. 34).

A work with two authors

Pepinsky and DeStefano (1987) demonstrate that a teacher’s language often reveals hidden biases.


One study (Pepinsky & DeStefano, 1987) demonstrates hidden biases in teachers’ language.

A work with three to five authors

Pepinsky, Dunn, Rentl, and Corson (1993) further demonstrate the biases evident in gestures.

A work with six or more authors

One study (Rutter et al., 1996) attempts to explain these geographical differences in adolescent experience.

A work with a group author

An earlier prediction was even more somber (Lorenz Research, 1997).

An anonymous work

One article (“Right to Die,” 1976) noted that a death-row inmate may crave notoriety.

One of two or more works by the same author(s)

At about age seven, most children begin to use appropriate gestures to reinforce their stories (Gardner, 1973a).

Two or more works by different authors

Two studies (Herskowitz, 1989; Marconi & Hamblen, 1990) found that periodic safety instruction can dramatically reduce employees’ accidents.

An indirect source

Supporting data appear in a study by Wong (cited in Marconi & Hamblen, 1990).

An electronic source

Ferguson and Hawkins (1998) did not anticipate the “evident hostility” of participants (par. 6).

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Although each of the in-text references is brief, it will not be clear or accurate unless it refers readers to a specific and complete citation listed in the “References.” A sample citation should look like this:


Beck, C. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects.
        Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

For other examples, as well as where to place the parenthetical reference within each sentence, see the book The Little, Brown Compact Handbook by Jane E. Aaron (from which the parenthetical text citations are taken). Also, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by the American Psychological Association – call number


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